Saturday, April 9, 2016

How to Plan a successful tour itinerary 2

Tour itinerary contains list of travelling points and stop overs in detail. It should be give better idea to traveler what he / she doing during his / her  journey or tour. Good tour itinerary should Include following

 Arrival and Departure

This part is very crucial in tour itinerary. We have to indicate where we pickup clients and at what time we are going to get them and who welcomes them in the airport or destination they provided. Also we have to indicate at what time we getting them to departure.

Timing and millage

Timing and Millage is also very crucial part of the tour itinerary we have to indicate at what time tour starts on each day and what time they can checking in to hotels. Then client can get idea of how to plan his day to day routine while in tour.  Also you have to indicate Millage in each destination from start point of the day. It's also useful for tour agent side also to make millage charts.

Inclusions & Exclusions  

In good tour itinerary you should clearly mentioned what you give to clients with this itinerary and what are not giving. I.E Some are B/B basis so it includes Breakfast Complimentary but it excludes lunch and dinner so you have to clearly list down inclusions and exclusions in tour itinerary. Then clients knows about what they get complimentary with tour plan and what they have to purchase and arrange by their own.

Lodging Details

You have to mention where they going to spend their night and also class of the lodging their going to stay. How many rooms , what is the standard of the room (deluxe, suit , Standard e.t.c) and also you have to indicate what is the meal plan for them you proposed.

Mode of travelling

You have to clearly mention what type of vehicle your going to provide them for ground transportation . if they are wishing to go  train excursion what is the class you booked for them what time train leaves from the station  , where is the Station they have to enter to train e.t.c


At the last you have to indicate budget of the traveler as per person and also in total cost. Also you have to indicate what are the entrance fees &  fees they have to pay for their other activities.

Cancellation policy  

You have to mention your company or travel agency cancellation policy in the tour itinerary. It will be provide you insurance if client cancel trip after the confirmation. It also easy for your client.

With all of these details you can make a good tour itinerary without help of anyone. If you follow this guideline your itinerary will be completed one. If you missed first article of  How to Plan a successful tour itinerary please visit here  

image credit goes to

Monday, December 22, 2014

What is a "Brand" ?

The original meaning of the word ‘brand’ seems to derive from an Old Norse word brandr, which meant ‘to burn’ (Interbrand Group, 1992). Yet in the etymology of the word, this idea of branding as a “permanent mark deliberately made with hot iron” now takes second place to “goods of particular name or trade mark” (Oxford English Dictionary). But does this really describe what we understand as a brand? The American Marketing Association describes a brand as a “name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and differentiate them from those of competitors.”
                                                                                                            Branding and Advertising
                                                                                           FLEMMING HANSEN & LARS BECH CHRISTENSEN

A brand name is the part of a brand that can be vocalized. Examples are Disneyland, Hilton, Carnival cruise, and Outback. A brand mark is the part of a brand that can be recognized but it is not utterable , such as symbol, design or distinctive coloring or lettering. Examples are McDonald’s golden arches and Hilton’s H.A trademark is a brand or part of a brand given legal protection; it protects the seller’s exclusive rights to use the brand name or brand mark. 

What does the brand stand for in the customer’s mind? This is an important question to companies. Brands are increasingly important to tourist destinations even if they are not registered as such. Interestingly, most seem to depict objectives: The Big Apple, New York City; a Kiwi, New Zealand; a cowboy, Wyoming; the Beefeaters, London or the Eiffel Tower, Parris.  

Tuesday, November 18, 2014

How to Plan a successful tour itinerary 1

Itinerary planning is one of the major functions and day-to-day activities of a travel agency. The travel agency may sell ready-made tour packages or design tailor made customized tour itineraries for according to their clients requirements. Tour itinerary should be carefully planed just because of it involves a lot of work. In this article we are going to explain how to plan successful tour itinerary, what's including it and key terms on it.   

What is Tour itinerary?

The term 'itinerary' may be defined as the linking of all the journey points in a traveler's journey, i.e. from the origin point, and in between stopping points for sightseeing at the destinations and back to the point of origin, which may not always be the case. We can describe it as the itinerary is a tour programme in sequential order which is designed day wise to identify the origin points, destinations and route points, hotels, meals, mode of transport, sightseeing, car/coach and other relevant details related to the tour. 

we can summarize it like this, itinerary is used to identify the origin, destination and all the halts in a traveler's journey. 

Segments of an itinerary 

Each particular portion of itinerary we can called as a segment. i.e. cultural triangle of the Sri Lanka. Anuradapura-Polonnaruwa-Kandy. it would be consist of following segments-:

1. Anuradhapura-Polonnaruwa
2. Polonnaruwa-Kandy
3. Kandy-Anuradhapura

Depending on the mode of transportation between destinations we can termed two segments -:

Air segment

Air segment means it use air travel as mode of transport. in this segment departure city or airport termed as the "boarding point" or departure point. the city of arrival or airport is termed as "off point" or arrival point.

Surface segment 

Surface segment means use land travel such as railway or road for it's mode of transportation.

Outbound segment and inbound segment 

For an outbound travel such as Colombo-Delhi-Colombo, we can identify Colombo-Delhi as the outbound segment and Delhi-Colombo as inbound segment (return segment).

One way itinerary and Circle trip

A one way itinerary is one where passenger is not return to the origin (boarding point).
i.e. Colombo-Dubai

A circle trip is one which the passenger return to the point of origin (boarding point).
i.e. Colombo-Dubai-Colombo

Non-stop, direct and connecting flight 

A non-stop flight is a flight that does not leave any stops between origin point and the passenger intended destination.

In a direct flight the passenger is not required to change any aircraft. but it can be have any number of stops.

In connecting flight two or more air crafts are used between the origin point and destination point.

Origin, connecting and stopover point

A connecting point is one which a point where there is change of aircraft.
A stopover point is one which is not a connecting point. destination point is the point of stopover.
The origin point is the first departure point or boarding point.

image credit goes to

Thursday, June 26, 2014

Ad campaign that changed the face of Las Vegas

Las Vegas' "What Happens Here, Stays Here" slogan is one of the more famous taglines in modern tourism marketing and one of the most quoted, talked about, and recognized ad campaigns in any industry. The phrase has not only been a spark that's helped drive millions of visitors to Sin City, but it's also inspired an Usher song and the trilogy of Hangover movies, been quoted by Laura Bush, closed an Oscar ceremony, and been banned from Super Bowl time slots.

Many old-Timers still think of Las Vegas as “Sin City” an anything goes gambling town built on smoke-filled casinos, bawdy all-girl revues, all you can eat buffets, Elvis impersonators, and no-wait weddings on the Vegas strip. But that’s the old Las Vegas. The new Vegas has reinvented itself as a luxury destination. Casinos and gaming now account for less than half the city’s revenues. Instead the new Las Vegas brims with classy resort hotel/casinos, expensive shopping malls filled with luxury goods, first-run entertainment, and restaurants bearing the names of world-renown chefs. The campaign first cooked up in 2003 at a brainstorming meeting in the Las Vegas tourism department of ad agency R&R Partners. The meeting was sparked by a need to brand Vegas for something other than gambling. A year of research resulted in the following conclusions, as explained in R&R's case study of the campaign:

The emotional bond between Las Vegas and its customers was freedom. Freedom on two levels. Freedom to do things, see things, eat things, wear things, feel things. In short, the freedom to be someone we couldn't be at home. And freedom from whatever we wanted to leave behind in our daily lives. Just thinking about Vegas made the bad stuff go away. At that point the strategy became clear. Speak to that need. Make an indelible connection between Las Vegas and the freedom we all crave.

The campaign was simple and fearless: Focus on the idea of Las Vegas as a guilt-free place where visitors can assume any identity they choose and do things they would never dream of in their lives back home. It worked brilliantly. “What happens here” changed the tourism game in Las Vegas. It triggered a surge in visitors, a generally younger crowd than those who had come before, which in turn gave rise to a nightclub scene that boosted the city’s economy. Where visitors once came to Las Vegas to gamble and be entertained, “What happens” provided the city with a third major draw the chance for tourists to be their own entertainment.

“It’s reflected what visitors want from Las Vegas,” said R&R Partners CEO Billy Vassiliadis, whose firm created the campaign. “It is reflective of Las Vegas as a place where I can come and escape my doldrums and escape the treadmill that’s my life.”

The “What Happens Here, Stays Here” ads make people laugh. And although print and digital assets have been added to the campaigns, video drives the message.

“The heart of the campaign is the video,” says Sara Gorgon, an account supervisor at R&R Partners. R&R shares 15 high-quality videos from the past ten years on its Vimeo page.

The ads have gone from giving "permission" to visitors to live out their fantasies to the new character being introduced today, the Vegas Enabler – someone that we each have in our lives. The Enabler is meant to celebrate that person who facilitates fun experiences, showing potential visitors who may have an idea of what Las Vegas has to offer, but might need a little nudge to act on that.

Adds they produced –

  • Ad from 2006 shows a man trying to pick up girls by testing out different occupations. The message: He's free to be whoever he wants in Vegas.
  • Second add in 2006, a lawn mower charges his boss $35 extra to keep secret what he saw him to do in Vegas. The ad was criticized for going off strategy, but was comical nonetheless.
  • Add in 2007, this ad suggests that even the best-behaved, buttoned-up people can let loose in Vegas.
  • Add Posted in 2009, this clever ad turns the recession and Vegas' dropping visitor numbers into a positive for potential guests. A newswoman bemoans the empty cabanas as sign of the times but quickly rushes off camera so she can enjoy private pools and smaller crowds for herself.
  • 2011 campaign starred actress Tristen MacDonald, a woman who "broke the code" by tweeting and taking photos. In the ad, she is ostracized for breaking the code by her friends, DJs, and other partygoers.
  • 2nd Posted in 2011, ad sees a father struggling to explain to his daughter what grown-ups do in Las Vegas.

New York City Branding advertising campaign

In the decade of the 70 New York City was plunged into one of its greatest fiscal crises. The growing crime without any control and large businesses began their march looking for new locations. The whole atmosphere was hurting the image of New York and tourism was suffering accordingly. Between 1970 and 1980, the city lost nearly 825,000 residents, by far the largest loss ever sustained over a 10 year period. In 1984, there was the highly publicized case of Bernard Goetz, otherwise known as the subway vigilante, who shot four young black men in the New York Subway because they were trying to rob him. The Goetz case became a symbol of a particularly dark moment in New York City history when the city’s crime problem had reached epidemic proportions. The environment of the city at that time, especially prevalent in the subway, was one of complete disorder and daily violent crime.
This campaign aimed to search for people to see New York as something more than a big city with all the problems this entails, being a place to enjoy and in which to live. Thus, the campaign sought tourist was directed both to recover tourism as he was missing all the inhabitants of the State of New York.  In 1977, William S. Doyle, Deputy Commissioner of the New York State Department of Commerce hired advertising agency Wells Rich Greene to develop a marketing campaign for New York State.  The graphic designer Milton Glaser was recruited to work on the campaign and created the design based on Wells Rich Greene’s advertising campaign. He didn’t take the work too seriously and he did it pro-bono, with no idea of the successful brand he just created. The logo was simple and effective, not hard to remember or to draw and probably that’s why people appreciate it.

The innovative pop-style icon became a major success and has continued to be sold for years. In the popular mind (though this was not the original intention) the logo has become closely associated with New York City, and the placement of the logo on plain white T-shirts readily sold in the city has widely circulated the appearance of the image, making it a commonly recognized symbol. Nobody comes back from New York without a “I love NY” souvenir. No matter if it’s a white t-shirt, a pencil or a coffee cup, the logo “I love NY” is more than a cheesy tourism item: it’s a state-owned logo that made 1,83 million dollars in licensing fees in year 2011. It’s a huge surge of income for the State so it deserves an article about its history and the explanation of its worldwide success. Now Tourism in New York  City serves nearly 47 million foreign and American tourists each year including day-trippers. That advertising campaign gave huge kick to New York city to Brand itself.

Saturday, May 31, 2014

Beverages 2 : Wine

What is Wine?

Wine is an Alcoholic Beverage obtained by the Fermentation of the Juice of Freshly Gathered Grapes, the fermentation of which has been carried through in the District of its Origin and according to local tradition and practice. Wine is merely the Fermented Grape Juice with no addition of any sort. Wikipedia says Archaeological evidence has established the earliest-known production of wine from fermenting grapes during the late Neolithic or early Chalcolithic in the Caucasus and the northern edge of the Middle East.Earliest discovered sites containing shards of wine-stained pottery, dated to c. 6000 BC in Georgia, and c. 5000 BC in Iran.

Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (8th century BC, but possibly relating earlier compositions), Alkman (7th century BC), and others. In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king's personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of Aten.

How to make wine?

Main Wine producing Regions 

  • France, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Australia, Spain, Argentina, etc
  • France, Italy & Germany produce some of the finest quality Wine and Italy produces the largest quantity of Wine in the world.
It is divided to two main categories  :

Traditional wines(old world wine) 

  • France 
  • Italy 
  • Germany
  • Switzerland
  • Spain
  • Austria
  • England
  • Poland

New world wine

  • Australia
  • New Zealand
  • Argentina
  • United State
  • Canada
  • Chile
  • South Africa
Wine Belt in the World

Different types of wine

  1. Table wine
  2. Sparkling wine
  3. Fortified wine
Table Wine :

Table wine further categorized as,

White wine           Colorless to lightish green in color
Rose wine             Pink in color
Red wine              Dark red in color
  • White and Red wine serving in Chill
  • Red wine serving in room temperature 
White wine

Rose wine

Red wine

Sparkling Wine :

This is a Wine which gives a sparkling affect and bubbles up when the bottle is opened. A Sparkling Wine is where some of the Carbon Dioxide gas released from the Second Fermentation is retained in the Bottle. Different Countries have special terms to describe Sparkling Wines displayed on the Wine Label.

Sparkling Wines are named as,
  • SEKT
  • ASTI


Champagne is the Sparkling Wine made in the Champagne District of France. No other District or a country could produce a Sparkling Wine with the name Champagne. Dom Perignon is a brand name of a Sparkling Wine produced in the district of Champagne in France.

The standard name given for the Sparkling Wine produced in Germany is called SEKT. Henkel Trocken is the brand name of a Sparkling Wine produced in Germany.

The standard name given for a Sparkling Wine in Italy is called ASTI. ASTI SPUMANTE is a brand name of a Sparkling Wine produced in Italy. The name itself indicates it is an Italian Sparkling Wine. 
Dom Perignon

 Henkel Trocken
Fortified wine :

This is a Grape Wine strengthened with the addition of a Grape Brandy, blended and matured before bottling.
Now known within the European Economic Commission (EEC) as Liqueur Wine or Vins de Liqueur. The Alcoholic Strength is between 15% - 22%

There are many Fortified Wines in the world, out of which some famous types are,
  • Port wine 
  • Maderia wine
  • Sherry
  • Marsala

Port wine
  • Alcoholic Strength is 18% - 20%
  • Some famous names are Ruby Port, Tawny Port,& Vintage Port

Maderia wine

  • Made on the Portuguese island of Madeira.
  • Alcoholic strength is 18%. Some famous name are Sercial (dry), Verdello (medium), Bual (sweet), Malmsey (very sweet)


  • Alcoholic strength is 15% - 18%
  • Some famous names are Bristol Cream, Amontillado, and Oloroso.

  • A dark Sweet Wine from Marsala in Sicily.

Condition affecting the quality of wine
  • Grape
  • Soil
  • Climate
  • Viticulture
  • Vinification
  • Luck of the year
Grape Varities

Red Grape
White grape
Wine and food combination

Asparagus – A different flavor for Wine, White Burgundy,Chardonnay, Dry Gew├╝rztraminer.

Avocado – Medium White Wine Graves

Caviar – Champagne .

Consomm├ę – Medium dry Sherry or Madeira

Fish, Seer, Prawns – Fine dry Medium White Wine – Chablis,Pouilly Fume, Graves

Oyster – Chablis, Muscadet, Graves

Salmon (Fresh) – Chardonnay,  Chablis  Grand Cru.

Chicken\Turkey – Red Burgundy Wine

Beef Stew – Pomerol, St. Emilion

Pork – Very good Dry or wet White or Red

Lamb – Red Bordeaux

Liver – Young Red Beaujolais, Zinfandel

Foie Gras – Beaujolais or a Light Young Red Wine

Cheese – Light Cream Cheese go well with Full Bodied White, Rose and Light Reds.

Sweets & Puddings – Champagne works well with Sweets & Puddings

Dessert – Sauternes, Sherry, Port, Madeira, Marsala

Wine Glasses

Tuesday, May 27, 2014

Beverages 1: what is Beer ?

Wikipedia said :

Beverages, are liquids specifically prepared for human consumption. In addition to basic needs, beverages form part of the culture of human society. Despite the fact that most beverages, including juice, soft drinks, and carbonated drinks, have some form of water in them; water itself is often not classified as a beverage, and the word beverage has been recurrently defined as not referring to water.

Non alcoholic
Wines/champagnes/sparkling wines
Hard liquors
Aerated waters
Natural spring water



The beer was first manufactured by Egyptians more than 2600 years ago.Beer can be defined as alcoholic beverage which contains carbon dioxide, and is manufactures from barley, hops, sugar and water and is fermented with yeast and filtered with finings. Beer contains between 4% to 9% alcohol, sugar and minerals. The main ingredient is water.  

How to make beer

Here is simplest brewing process:
  1. Malted barley is soaked in hot water to release the malt sugars.
  2. The malt sugar solution is boiled with Hops for seasoning.
  3. The solution is cooled and yeast is added to begin fermentation.
  4. The yeast ferments the sugars, releasing CO2 and ethyl alcohol.
  5. When the main fermentation is complete, the beer is bottled with a little bit of added sugar to provide the carbonation.

Ingredients :

Types of beer-

  • Light beer
  • Brown/Black beer
  • Ale beer
  • Stout beer
  • Lager beer
  • Pilsner beer
  • Dr aught beer

Brands from different countries

England                     Bass \ Guinnes \ Worthington
Germany                   Beck’s \Dortmunder\ Lowenbrau
Holland                     Heineken \ Skol \ Amestel
Australia                    Fosters Large \ Swan Larger
Denmark                   Carlsberg \ Tuborg
France                       Kronenburg \ Slavia
Czechoslovakia          Pilsner Urquel \ Budweisser
Sweden                     Skol
Switzerland                Cardinal \ Gurten \ Muller
U.S.A.                       Michelob \ Schlitz
Japan                         Asahi \ Santoro \ Kirin
Indonesia                   Anker \ Bintang \ San Miguel
Philippine                  San Miguel
China                        Pu Tao

Beer Glasses
Comes in many different types and shapes and sizes Includes Beer Mugs, goblets, pilsner glasses, Beer Boot

Three things to know:
  • Beer has to be chilled 4-7c
  • Glass should be cleaned
  • There should be form/Head in beer
What is Beer Shandy ?

shandy is beer mixed with a soft drink, carbonated lemonade, ginger beer, ginger ale, or apple juice.

How to make? 

Fill a standard pint glass half-way with beer. Fill it the rest of the way with lemonade or other soft drink and Serve.